Large Dice – 3/4 in x 3/4 in square
Medium Dice – 1/2 in x 1/2 in square
Small Dice – 1/4 in x 1/4 in square
Batônnet – 1/4 in x 1/4 in x 2 in long
Julienne – 1/16 in x 1/16 in x 2 in long
Brunoise – 1/16 x 1/16 in square
Mince – Chopped very finely. This is usually confused with Brunoise.
Concassé – Usually deals with tomatoes; to peel, seed, and rough chop.
Core the tomatoes and score an X on the bottom. Blanch them until you see the skin start to peel away, usually under 1 minute, you don’t necessarily want to cook the tomato. Shock the tomato in an ice bath and peel. Now, a real concassé would mean you would seed the tomato but honestly, unless it’s meant to be really fancy or garnish, don’t bother. Finally rough chop to the desired size.
Deglaze – To add a liquid to a pan to dissolve the remaining food stuck on the bottom of the pan.
Liaison – A mixture of egg yolks and cream used to enhance and lightly thicken a sauce or liquid.
Liaisons have to be tempered in order to prevent coagulation.
Mirepoix – A mixture of roughly cut vegetables used for flavoring in stocks and sauces.
Mirepoix usually consists of carrots, onion and celery, but a White Mirepoix,
made of parsnip, onion and celery can be used for lighter soups.
Monter au Beurre – To finish with raw (whole) butter.
Mother Sauces – Also called Grand Sauces, the 5* basic sauces that others (small sauces) are derived from.
*Some people consider Béarnaise (a Hollandaise derivative) to be a Mother Sauce, but it all depends on how you’re taught.
Roux – A cooked mixture of equal parts fat and flour. It is usually used for sauces and soups.
There are 3 kinds – white, blond and brown.
Sweat – To cook in fat until soft. Usually used for vegetables.
Temper – Raising the temperature of a liquid by slowly whisking a hotter liquid to it.
Sashimi – Raw fish
Nori – Seaweed Wraps
Wasabi – Japanese Horseradish
Shoga – Pickled Ginger
Maki – Roll
Futomaki – “Fat” or Large Roll
Nigiri-zushi – “Fingers” of rice with ingredients on top
Chirashi-zushi – Bed of rice with sashimi and other ingredients on top
Inari-zushi – Fried tofu stuffed with rice
Temaki-zushi – Hand roll, shaped like a cone
Aburage – Fried Tofu
Ama-ebi – Sweet Shrimp
Anago – Saltwater Eel
Ebi – Shrimp
Hamachi – Yellowtail
Hirame – Flounder
Hokkigai – Surf Clam
Ika – Squid
Ikura – Salmon Roe
Kappa – Cucumber, when used in a roll
Kyuri – Cucumber
Kani – Crab
Maguro/Toro – Tuna
Masu – Trout
Tako – Octopus
Tamago – Egg
Tekka – Tuna, when used in a roll
Unagi – Freshwater Eel
Umeboshi – Pickled Plum
Uni – Sea Urchin